Vol 159, No 3 (2021)


Comparative characteristics of human stem cells

Pototska O.Y., Shevchenko E.N.


Stem cell (SC) therapy is one of the most promising methods of clinical medicine. Although most stem cell-containing products are still being investigated in clinical trials, some of them are already approved for treatment in many countries. Therefore, modern medicine providing basic understanding of SC subtypes, their properties and potential risks should be incorporated in educational programs of medical universities.

The aim of this review is to compare SC types, methods of their procurement, and perspectives of their use.

Stem cells can be grouped according to the age of the donor organism. Embryonic SCs are those isolated from blastocysts, obtained from extracorporeal fertilization, cloning, semi-cloning or parthenogenesis (androgenetic and gynogenetic SCs). Fetal SCs are those isolated from embryonic and fetal tissues before birth or from miscarriage and abortion material (including ectopic pregnancies). Fetal SCs include a special group of perinatal extraembryonic SCs, which are obtained from extraembryonic organs (umbilical cord, amnion, placenta) after birth; among them hematopoietic, mesenchymal, epithelial and decidual cells are distinguished. Adult SCs (somatic or tissue specific) are isolated from different tissues and organs of adult organisms throughout their life. Their properties depend on their location and age of the donor. Additionally, induced pluripotent SCs are created artificially from mature cells by modification of gene expression. Every group of SCs is heterogenous and has its advantages and drawbacks analyzed in this review. Also considered in this review is the application of exosomes produced by stem cells as an alternative to cellular therapy.

Morphology. 2021;159(3):75-97
pages 75-97 views

Original Study Articles

Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats of different ages after administration of methionine

Yanko R.V., Levashov M.I.


BACKGROUND: Literature data on the effect of methionine on functional activity and, especially, on morphological changes in the thyroid gland are sporadic. This may be due to a number of reasons, such as: different ages of experimental animals; different dosage of methionine; different seasonality and duration of experiments.

AIM: To investigate the morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats of different ages after methionine administration.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experiments were performed on 48 Wistar male rats of 3 and 15 months of age. Experimental animals received methionine daily for 21 days at a dose of 250 mg / kg of body weight in addition to the standard diet. Histological preparations were made from the thyroid tissue according to the standard method. The gland morphometry was performed on digital images using the computer program Image J.

RESULTS: It was found that 21-day administration of methionine to rats of both 3 and 15 months of age led to a decrease in the cross-sectional area of the follicles and colloid, the accumulation index of colloid and the relative area of the conective tissue in the thyroid gland. But the follicular-colloid index, the number of resorption vacuoles in the colloid, and the number of interfollicular islets were increased. Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of 15-month-old experimental rats were manifested to a greater extent than in young animals.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the influence of methionine increases the histomorphological signs of the synthetic activity of the thyroid gland in rats of different ages.

Morphology. 2021;159(3):99-106
pages 99-106 views

Ultrastructure of rat cerebral cortex cells in normal and experimental dioxin poisoning

Salnikova M.M., Yakovleva A.I., Saitov V.R., Golubev A.I.


BACKGROUND: Currently, the treatment of dioxin intoxication is only symptomatic as there are no developed methods of therapy for it. Therefore, various manifestations of the effect of dioxin on biological objects of animal origin are being actively studied.

AIM: The study of the ultrastructure of the cerebral cortex of rats in normal and experimental poisoning with dioxin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the ultrastructure of the cells of the pyramidal layer of the cerebral cortex of rats of the control and experimental groups that were chronically exposed to small doses of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or TCDD). Morphometric analysis was carried out to determine the length of synaptic clefts, the number of synapses per unit area, the thickness of the myelin layer of the processes, and the number of wrappers of myelin sheaths.

RESULTS: The pathology of neurons was observed both at the optical and ultrastructural levels. It was characterized by a decrease in nuclei, cell death, thinning of myelin sheaths, and demyelination. There was a significant positive correlation between dose of poisoning and the degree of destruction of neurons. The number of synaptic contacts decreased with an increase in their average length.

CONCLUSIONS: Demyelination, impaired cellular respiration, and destruction of synaptic contacts indicated the ability of dioxin to indirectly cause accelerated aging of neurons and their death (apoptosis).

Morphology. 2021;159(3):107-115
pages 107-115 views

Macro-microscopic examination of the valves of the deep dorsal vein of the human penis

Strelkov A.N., Astrakhantsev A.F., Snegur S.V.


BACKGROUND: The study of the structure of the deep dorsal vein of the human penis has a long history but, so far, data on the presence of valves in it are contradictory. Contradictions and ambiguities in the functioning of the valvular apparatus of the deep dorsal vein, lack of information on the morphological structure of its valves, and the importance of the venous system in the physiology of erection motivated this study.

AIM: To study the valves of the deep dorsal vein of the human penis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study of deep dorsal vein valves in 150 men was carried out, using macroscopic and microscopic methods, on autopsy material. Forty-seven trunks of the deep dorsal vein isolated using magnifying optics ×3.5 from the coronal sulcus to the prostatic venous plexus and 103 fragments of the vein in cross section directly distal to the supporting ligament were studied. We used histological painting coloring with hematoxylin-eosin, funcionam with fuchsin, and Mallory. The obtained images of valves in longitudinal and cross sections were subjected to photo-registration and archiving for further study and analysis.

RESULTS: Generally, the studied vein had one trunk, but in 7.3% of cases it had two trunks. Most often there was a division of the main trunk of the vein. Valves of the deep dorsal vein in the longitudinal section were detected in 89% of observations. On the cross section, the valve in 36% of cases was detected near the supporting ligament. Valves are represented most often by two flaps, at the base of which was a roller associated with the middle shell of the vein wall. The valves of the deep dorsal vein of the penis had the typical appearance of pocket type valves and did not prevent the outflow of venous blood from the cavernous bodies, blocking retrograde blood flow.

CONCLUSIONS: Valves are an integral component of the deep dorsal vein of the human penis. The structure of the valves indicates that they prevent retrograde blood flow to the cavernous bodies, both at rest and during erection.

Morphology. 2021;159(3):117-124
pages 117-124 views

Morphological reconstruction of the bladder in the process of age-related involution

Kulikov S.V., Shormanov I.S., Solovyev A.S.


BACKGROUND: Population aging has caused a steady increase in morbidity associated with gerontological pathology with lesions of various organs and systems, including those associated with structural changes in the bladder.

AIM: To study morphological rearrangements of the bladder and its vascular system in elderly and senile people.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Autopsy material of the bladder wall from 25 men aged 60–80 years was studied using histological, morphometric, and statistical techniques. As a control, we used material from 10 persons aged 20–30 years who died from injuries.

RESULTS: Our results show that, in men in the process of aging, atherosclerotic changes occur in the extra-organic arteries,, leading to a narrowing of the lumen. In the intra-organ arteries, thickening of the media, hyperelastosis, and hyalinosis are observed, leading to a reduction in blood flow and are markers of arterial hypertension. The formation of the so-called closing arteries with a powerful intimate layer indicates adaptation to hemodynamic disorders. Over time, sclerosis grows in the media of arteries and in the intima of the closing vessels. The veins of the bladder lose a powerful smooth muscle layer in the wall and undergo sclerosis, making blood outflow difficult, and aggravating chronic hypoxia. Remodeling of the vascular bed of the bladder leads to detrusor atrophy and degenerative-dysregenerative changes in the urothelium.

CONCLUSIONS: In the vascular bed of the urinary bladder in elderly and senile men, atherosclerotic and angiotonic changes characteristic of arterial hypertension progress occur, followed by the development of detrusor atrophy and impaired urothelium regeneration.

Morphology. 2021;159(3):125-132
pages 125-132 views

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