Vol 159, No 4 (2021)


Structure, function and genoarchitectonics of the brain’s central amygdaloid nucleus

Akhmadeev A.V.


The review presents the latest literature describing the Central nucleus of the Amygdala complex of the brain (CE), which is an important link in the Central autonomic nervous network. It emerges in the early stages of the evolution of the telencephalon, which determines its solid phylogenetic age and explains its heteromorphy, which is manifested by the presence of several subnucleus: medial, intermediate, lateral, and laterocapsular. The review provides information about the cytoarchitectonics, neural organization of subnucleus, and neuropeptides. Among the latter, vasopressin and oxytocin received special attention in connection with the identified new way of the innervation of the amygdala complex, which has at least two origins: (1) arising from a small population of neurons localized in the intra-amygdalar portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and (2) originating from hypothalamic neurosecretory nuclei. The afferent and efferent connections of the CE are characterized. Several studies have defined the medial subnucleus as the center of the integration of incoming information to the CE and the main channel for its exit from the CE. Moreover, the center of the brainstem that controls cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and motor functions is the main point where efferent connections of the CE follow. Information is provided about the main functions, including the regulation of social behavior, eating behavior, and functional reinforcement systems. The results of genetic studies indicate that CE is a derivative of the striatal division of the lateral ganglionic eminence, and its formation is influenced by the expressions of Dlx5 and Lmo4 genes.

Morphology. 2021;159(4):137-144
pages 137-144 views

Original Study Articles

Age-related changes in neurons containing neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the colon of rats

Masliukov P.M., Aryaeva D.A., Budnik A.F.


BACKGROUND: The density of both terminals in the circular muscle of the intestine increases sharply in the first 10 days of life. However, the age-related aspects of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) expression in metasympathetic intramural enteric ganglia remain unclear.

AIM: To identify the localization, percentage, and morphometric characteristics of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the intramural ganglia of the myenteric plexus (MP) and submucous plexus (SP) of the large intestine of rats of different age groups.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study examined Wistar rats aged 1, 10, 20, 30, and 60 days and 2 years using immunohistochemical methods.

RESULTS: nNOS-IR neurons were found in the large intestine at birth and during the remaining periods. In the intramural ganglia of the MP, the largest percentage of nNOS-IR neurons was detected in newborn rats and decreased in ontogenesis up to 60 days of life and did not change until senescence. In the SP, nNOS-IR neurons were abundant in newborns, the percentage decreased significantly by day 20, and they were not detected in days 30 and 60, but again appeared in large numbers in older rats. The average cross-sectional area of nNOS-IR neurons increased in the MP from birth during the first 2 months of life. In the SP, the average size of nNOS-IR cells increased in the first 30 days of life and became significantly larger in old rats than in rats of other ages.

CONCLUSIONS: The expression of nNOS in intramural nodes’ neurons in the large intestine decreased in early postnatal ontogenesis and subsequently increased in aged rats.

Morphology. 2021;159(4):145-152
pages 145-152 views

Patterns of topographic and anatomical relations of the uterus and rectum in vivo

Smelov S.V., Shalimov E.S.


BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tomography is now widely used for the clinical assessment of the state of pelvic organs. Its findings are used in clinical practice for topographic and anatomical substantiation of transvaginal surgical access to the abdominal cavity through the posterior fornix of the vagina.

AIM: To identify topographic and anatomical relationship patterns of the rectum and uterus based on MRI data to justify transvaginal surgical access to the abdominal cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed using 58 cases of MRI examinations of the pelvis of women (average age, 41.35±5.45 years) on the EXCELART Vantage Atlas 1.5 TSL tomograph (Toshiba) using a standard combination of pulse sequences (modes T1-VI, T2-VI, T-1 Fsat, T-2 Fsat, DWI, and T-2 STIR, with section thickness of 3–5 mm) without intravenous contrast in a moderately filled bladder using a standard combination of pulse sequences in typical (anteversionanteflexion) and variant (retro, sinistro et dextrodeviatio uteri) positions of the uterus.

RESULTS: In more than half of the cases, the supravaginal portion of the rectum, along with the sacral flexure, is supplemented by a flexure in the frontal plane. It influences the close or distant anatomical relationship of the rectum to the uterus. This position of organs determines the shape of the rectouterine pouch and techniques of performing transvaginal accesses to the abdominal cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix. A narrow shape of excavation can be a reason for refusal of interventions, and a wide shape is a favorable anatomical prerequisite for implementation. In most cases, the vaginal portion of the rectum is represented by a sacral flexure, and in a small number of cases, it is supplemented by a flexure in the frontal plane.

CONCLUSIONS: The degree of anatomical proximity of the rectum to the uterus (maximum anatomical proximity or distance) determines the shape of the rectouterine pouch. The transvaginal surgical access to the abdominal cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix is crucial.

Morphology. 2021;159(4):153-160
pages 153-160 views

Morphological manifestations of the dynamics of catecholamines binding by erythrocytes during activation and blockade of adrenergic regulatory mechanisms

Kuryanova E.V., Tryasuchev A.V., Teply D.L.


BACKGROUND: Blood cells show sensitivity and reactivity to catecholamines, which is determined by the presence of catecholamine receptors on their membranes. This fact is of significant research interest because in the study of regulatory mechanisms, it is not always sufficient to know the concentration of catecholamines in the blood; thus, it is important to observe their reception by erythrocytes.

AIM: To investigate the dynamics of catecholamine binding on erythrocytes when modeling the stimulation and blockade of adrenergic regulation mechanisms using the cytological method.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The number of catecholamine granules on erythrocytes was determined using silver nitrate impregnation under conditions of administration of anapriline β-adrenergic receptor blocker (2 mg/kg), acute stress, activation of noradrenergic systems (maprotiline, 10 mg/kg), and their combination.

RESULTS: Intact animals had 145–155 pieces of catecholamine granules per 40 erythrocytes. Medium-sized (0.6–0.9 μm) granules are more common. After the administration of a β-adrenergic receptor blocker, the total number of catecholamine granules decreases 2.8 times because the granules increased in size. Under acute stress, the total number of granules increases almost two times because the granules shrink, which may be a sign of the sensitization of erythrocyte membranes to catecholamines. The stimulation of the noradrenergic system causes a 20% decrease in the number of catecholamine granules due to a decrease in the number of small- and medium-sized granules. Under stress against the background of the activation of the noradrenergic system, the number of granules on erythrocytes is reduced, which may be a sign of adrenergic receptor desensitization.

CONCLUSIONS: The number of catecholamine granules on erythrocytes decreased after the administration of a β-adrenergic receptor blocker and increased during acute stress. The stimulation of the noradrenergic system was accompanied by a decrease in the binding of catecholamines, especially under conditions of acute stress, which indicates the desensitization of erythrocyte adrenergic receptors. Thus, the cytological method is sensitive enough to observe the reception of catecholamines by erythrocytes when exposed to adrenergic structures.

Morphology. 2021;159(4):161-170
pages 161-170 views

Letters to the editor

The state and prospects of traditional and innovative methods in the teaching of histology, cytology and embryology in a medical university (debatable aspects)

Shevlyuk N.N., Stadnikov A.A., Blinova E.V.


A distinctive feature of modern higher education is a competency-based approach, which involves the development of students in the competencies necessary for their future professional activities. Moreover, the formation of both general cultural and professional competencies is significant. Morphological disciplines play a role in formation of fundamental knowledge, which serves as the basis for the development of professional competencies.

The study aimed to analyze the role, significance, and effectiveness of traditional and innovative teaching methods in modern conditions in the study of histology, cytology, and embryology at a medical university.

Accumulated experience has shown that the integration of innovative teaching methods into the existing traditional Russian model is optimal with all the positives that the national high school has accumulated, whereas the traditional model should be viewed not only as a reserve of conservatism, but as a fundamental basis for innovative transformations.

Morphology. 2021;159(4):171-177
pages 171-177 views

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