Vol 160, No 1 (2022)

Original Study Articles

Klebsiella–Candida arthritis model in Wistar rats

Danilova E.I., Fisenko A.P., Stadnikov A.A., Perunova N.B., Ivanova E.V., Chaynikova I.N., Chelpachenko O.E.


MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out on 20 male Wistar rats, of which 15 were injected with a bacterial–fungal suspension into the cavity of the hock (tarsus) joint. Specifically, the rats were injected with Klebsiella–Candida suspension (1:1) with a microbial concentration of 106 CFU/ml prepared by using the museum strains Klebsiella pneumoniae ICIS-278 and Candida albicans ATCC 24433 under the control of an X-ray apparatus and digitizer FireCR+. Five intact animals served as the control. On day 15 of the experiment, a bacteriological and histological examination of the affected joints was carried out while maintaining topography after euthanasia.

RESULTS: In rats infected with the Klebsiella–Candidiasis suspension, pain syndrome and functional changes typical of arthritis were noted on days 2–3. The bacteriological examination of the affected joints in 75% of rats isolated K. pneumonia cultures that were identical, according to polymerase chain reaction, to the original strain that was part of the bacterial–fungal suspension. At the same time, fungi of the genus Candida, which was also used in the experiment to infect animals, were not detected in the affected joints of rats. The established model of Klebsiella–Candida arthritis was characterized by the pathomorphological signs of panarthritis accompanied by the purulent inflammation of all joint structures (synovial membrane, cartilage, and bone tissue) with the involvement of soft periarticular tissues.

CONCLUSION: The model of Klebsiella and fungal arthritis presented by this work can be used to test new means of antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) therapies, which are an integral component of the treatment of infection-associated arthritis.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):5-10
pages 5-10 views

The use of L-dopa induces the resistance of Mauthner neurons to the neurotoxic action of beta-amyloid

Tiras N.R., Mikheeva I.B., Mikhailova G.Z., Penkova N.A., Khutsyan S.S.


BACKGROUND: Mauthner goldfish (Carassius auratus (L)) cells serve as model objects for studying brain pathologies at the level of identified neurons and their individual dendrites. L-dopa may be an agent that decelerates the destruction of neurons caused by the toxic effects of beta-amyloid.

AIMS: To study the three-dimensional structure of Mauthner neurons in goldfish and the ultrastructure of their afferent synapses under the influence of L-dopa and the toxic 25–35 fragment of beta-amyloid.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed on the Mauthner neurons of goldfish fry (n=12) by using light and electron microscopy. Serial sections 3 μm thick were used to identify and integrally reconstruct the structure of Mauthner neurons; determine the volume of the soma and ventral and lateral dendrites; and study the structure of afferent synapses.

RESULTS: The use of L-dopa stabilized the size of the soma and ventral dendrites. The reduction in the volume of lateral dendrites was accompanied either by an increase in the volume of their branches under the action of beta-amyloid followed by that of L-dopa or by an increase in the volume of medial dendrites under the action of L-dopa followed by that of beta-amyloid. Although pathological changes in the ultrastructure of neurons and afferent synapses were not found, signs of early amyloidosis were detected.

CONCLUSION: The use of L-dopa decelerates the degeneration of Mauthner neurons. The resistance of whole neurons to the neurotoxic action of beta-amyloid has been suggested to be due to the mechanism of structural homeostasis aiming at the compensatory restoration of the morphological organization of neurons.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):11-19
pages 11-19 views

Physical development comparative study among aborigines inhabiting different regions of Russia’s Northeast

Averyanova I.V.


BACKGROUND: Adaptation to climatic conditions influences the main characteristics of subjective physical development and morphofunctional state. These characteristics tend to differ in different geographical regions of northeast Russia.

AIMS: A comparative analysis of basic somatometric indicators was conducted to identify differences between representatives of Magadan Region and Chukotka Autonomous District.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety-eight young men aged 17–21 years old (Koryaks and Evens) from Magadan Region (the City of Magadan) and 87 young men (Chukchi) aged 17–21 years old from Chukotka Autonomous District (the City of Anadyr) participated in this study. Chest circumference was measured, and body mass index and body area were calculated by using the length and weight of the body. The strength of the physique was estimated by applying the Pinier index, and the total body fat content in the two groups was determined.

RESULTS: Somatometric indicators exhibited by modern young male aborigines inhabiting different regions of the Far East demonstrated no significant differences between groups. However, relative to that to that of their peers in previous years, the subjective overall body size of the analyzed samples from the two regions had increased (body length: by 7.7 cm in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and 6.5 cm in the Magadan Region; body weight: by 3.7 kg in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and by 4.4 kg in the Magadan Region).

CONCLUSION: Aborigines from Magadan Region and Chukotka Autonomous District developed morphotypes with accelerated variables. The changes observed were not dependent on the region of residence or ethnicity.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):21-27
pages 21-27 views

Features of quantitative content of bone component in women of different age and сonstitution

Sakibaev K.S., Nikityuk D.B., Klochkova S.V., Alekseeva N.T., Tashmatova N.M., Alimbekova A.A., Manas kyzy U., Asanbek kyzy K.


BACKGROUND: Body component composition, including bone components, is dynamic. Obtaining objective information on body composition will allow solving a significant number of applied and theoretical problems in the field of personalized medicine.

AIM: To study the quantitative parameters of the bone component of the body in women of different age groups while taking body types into account.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The physical status of 580 female Kyrgyz women was studied. The women were allocated into three age groups: the youth period (16–20 years) with 210 girls, the first period of adulthood (21–35 years) with 186 women, and the second period of adulthood (36–55 years) with 184 women. Somatotyping was carried out in accordance with the scheme of Galant–Nikityuk–Chtetsov (I.B. Galant, 1927; V.P. Chtetsov, 1979; B.А. Nikityuk, 1983) with informed consent. Bone component content was determined by using the method of J. Matiegka (1921).

RESULTS: A total of 20, 32, 33, and 15% of the women were of the leptosomal, mesosomal, megalosomal, and indefinite somatotypes. Compared with the absolute content of the bone component in girls with the leptosomal somatotype, that of girls with the mesosomal somatotype almost did not change, that of girls with the megalosomal somatotype had increased by 1.2 times (p <0.05), and that of girls with the indefinite somatotype had increased by 1.1 times (p <0.05). The percentage of the bone component of the body in girls with the leptosomal somatotype was lower by 1.2, 1.3, and 1.5 times (all p <0.05) than that in girls with the mesosomal, megalosomal, and indefinite somatotypes, respectively. In women in the first period of adulthood, the percentage of leptosomal somatotypes was 1.4 times lower than that of the mesosomal, megalosomal and indeterminate somatotypes (all p <0.05), respectively. In women in the second period of adulthood, the percentage of leptosomal somatotypes was 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6 times lower than that of the mesosomal, megalosomal, and indefinite somatotypes (all p <0.05), respectively.

CONCLUSION: The absolute mass of the bone component of the body had minimal values in girls and women of mature age of leptosomal somatotypes (6.0–7.1 kg) and maximum values in megalosomal somatotypes (6.6–9.2 kg). In women of the second period of adulthood, in comparison with girls, its percentage in representatives of all somatotypes decreases (by 1.1–1.2 times).

Morphology. 2022;160(1):29-35
pages 29-35 views

Histological features of the structure of the portal vein of the liver and splenic vein in portal hypertension

Minaev S.V., Getman N.V., Grigorova A.N., Dydykin S.S., Sumkina O.B., Timofeev S.I.


BACKGROUND: Studies on the morphological and hemodynamic changes in the structure of the portal vein of the liver and the splenic vein in various pathologies, one of which is portal hypertension, remains relevant.

AIM: To perform a histological study on the structure and thickness of the membranes of the portal vein of the liver and splenic vein in people of different age groups with normal conditions and with portal hypertension.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sectional material for the study of the portal vein of the liver and splenic vein was obtained from 89 people aged 7–30 years old who died from injuries incompatible with life. A total of 57 cases had a history of portal hypertension during life, and the remaining 32 cases were considered as controls. The cellular and tissue components of the vein walls were studied in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin–eosin and Van Gieson’s stain (picric acid and fuchsin) using Weigert’s hematoxylin.

RESULTS: The thicknesses of the inner and middle membranes of venous vessels significantly increased in all age groups with portal hypertension relative to those in the control. The pathological features of changes in the thickness and microstructure of the components of the portal vein wall of the liver and splenic vein in topographically different parts of the veins were observed.

CONCLUSION: The histological and morphometric examination of the wall of the portal vein of the liver and the splenic vein in normal cases and cases of portal hypertension syndrome in different age periods revealed not only the structural features of the portal vein of the liver and splenic vein, but also the features of age-related pathomorphological changes in the individual parts of the veins and in each of the membranes. Such features are of considerable interest for clinical medicine.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):37-44
pages 37-44 views

An interdisciplinary approach to assessing the human constitution in adolescence

Fedotova T.K., Gorbacheva A.K.


AIMS: To estimate the efficiency of the interdisciplinary approach to the informative analysis of morphological constitution in young males and females in modern urboecological studies and to perform the integrative assessment of the morphofunctional status of the organism with the indexes of three parameter systems — somatometric, psychometric and neurophysiological (electroencephalogram — EEG) — on a sample of modern Moscow students by using multidimensional analysis

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample of modern Moscow psychology students (95 males and 150 females aged 18–20 years old) was used to accomplish the complex study of constitutional status based on three systems of parameters — morphological (somatic: skeletal dimensions, girths, and skinfolds), psychological (psychological tests for estimate personal anxiety, autonomic balance, and self-regulation and the Prognosis technique), physiological (EEG: power and coherence in different bands and cuts) — by means of factor analysis.

RESULTS: The first six constant and objective factors in the structure of the total constitution of young males and females were discussed: the factor of longitudinal skeletal development, factor of transversal body development (adiposity first of all), factor of the covariation of the parameters of the psychological system, factor of genetically determined physiological tone (EEG power), and the factors of function of the individual life experience under mediation by the environment — intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherencies. Both sexes had similar results for factor analysis with small differences, which reflected the more dynamic role of adipose tissue in the female organism. Six factors described approximately 70% of the variability in different systems of parameters.

CONCLUSION: The autonomy of different systems of traits, which is the base of the integrity and plasticity of the organism, is demonstrated. Interdisciplinary studies provide the comparative integrative characteristics of morphofunctional status of various modern ethnic/territorial groups, specify the mechanisms of adaptation to a concentrated anthropogenic environment, provide the correct estimation of the adaptive potential of the organism under the conditions of high levels of anthropogenic pressure, and describe the morphophysiological basis of patterns of behavior.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):45-55
pages 45-55 views

The effect of passive smoking on the structure of hepatocytes and the state of the microcirculatory bed in the liver in rats

Malyshev I.I., Vorobeva O.V., Romanova L.P.


BACKGROUND: Smoking is an important societal problem that greatly threatens the health of the population.

AIMS: To study the effect of smoking on the hepatobiliary system of rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 46 outbred white male rats. The control group comprised intact animals (n=10). The experimental rats in groups 1 (n=12), 2 (n=12), and 3 (n=12) were exposed to an atmosphere of tobacco smoke for 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively.

RESULTS: The greatest changes in the liver were noted in the third group. Small foci of necrosis were detected, around which a perifocal inflammatory reaction occurred. Signs of hydropic dystrophy and the presence of acidophilic lumps around the nuclei and thrombotic masses in the vessels were found. Signs of the capillaryization of the sinusoids were revealed. In all experimental groups, the number of cells up to 10 µm in diameter significantly increased. The percentage of cells with a diameter of up to 10–20 µm increased in the central zone in group 1; that in group 2 increased by 3 and 2.6 times in the central and peripheral zones, respectively; and that in group 3 increased by 3.4 and 2.8 times in the central and peripheral zones, respectively (p <0.001). The number of cells with a diameter of up to 20–30 µm decreased in group 1, that in in group 2 decreased by 1.9 and 1.5 times in the central and peripheral zones, respectively; and that in group 3 decreased by 2.7 and 2.0 times in the central and peripheral zones, respectively (p <0.001). The number of cells with a diameter of more than 30 had changed and showed the greatest changes in the peripheral zones: that in groups 1 and 2 decreased by 2.7 times, and that in group 3 decreased by 2.9 times.

CONCLUSIONS: Under tobacco smoke intoxication in rats, dystrophic and necrobiotic changes occurred in the liver, the number of binuclear cells decreased, the number of normal hepatocytes with a diameter of 20–30 μm decreased, and the percentage of cells with diameters of up to 10 and 10–20 μm increased.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):57-63
pages 57-63 views


In memory of Anton Vitalievich Nemilov (1879–1942)

Ivanov A.V., Nikishina N.A., Zatolokina M.A., Avdeeva E.Y.


The article is devoted to a brief scientific biography of the world-famous Soviet histologist, professor Anton Vitalievich Nemilov, a student of the Russian histologist and embryologist Alexander Stanislavovich Dogel.

This article aims to clarify the contribution of prof. A.V. Nemilov to the largest scientific areas of research in biology in the first half of the 20th century and in the formation of knowledge in biology, which has become axiomatic by now, and demonstrate its role in solving the problems in practical biology.

This work used materials from the Central State Archive of St. Petersburg and the Museum of Kursk State Medical University.

Professor A.V. Nemilov contributed to neuromorphology, histophysiology, and endocrine gland histology, as well as to the methodology and methods of histology teaching in the history of Leningrad State University and Leningrad Agricultural Institute.

Professor A.V. Nemilov, as one of the leaders of Leningrad State University, participated in the defense of the besieged Leningrad in 1941–1942.

The results of the scientific studies of the students of professor A.V. Nemilov contributed to scientific morphological research, the methodology of histology teaching, the organization of the country’s higher education system, and the preservation of the heritage and memory of their teacher.

Morphology. 2022;160(1):65-71
pages 65-71 views

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